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Shivaji believed in the tenets of guerrilla warfare. From 1698 Aurangzeb personally managed campaigns in the Deccan against the Marathas who started guerrilla warfare. He disguised as one of the carriers and hid his son in one of the baskets, and escaped on August 17, 1666. During this period , Shahji was in service of the Adilshah. [11] Shivaji stayed in Bijpur for a short period of time. Shivaji initiated his attack first by capturing the fort of Torangarh and then eventually constructed a series of forts all over the Deccan region. Shivaji assessed that taking on the Mughals alone was impossible, therefore he raided Dabhol in Bijapur territory and captured it. In November 1656, Aurangzeb obtained permission from Shah Jahan to invade Bijapur. 49. Whenever a copy of Quran fell into his hands, he treated it with respect and gave it to some of his Muslim followers.” [23]Â, (h) Guile. Shivaji led the freedom struggle of the Marathas against Muslim rule in … In 1632, Malik Ambar's son Fatah Khan placed a puppet ruler on the Ahmadnagar throne, and allied with the Mughals. He consolidated his gains in Konkan by building sea forts and raising a navy under Kanhoji Angre. Shivaji was one of the greatest statesmen and generals, symbolizing the Maratha will against the imperial rule of the Mughals. Shivaji Maharaj pioneered Shiva sutra or Ganimi Kava (guerrilla tactics) against the Mughals and other powers in 1645 leading to the establishment of the Maratha state in 1674, sowing seeds of what would become the last great empire (Maratha empire [a.k.a. Prince Akbar rebelled against ... From 1698 Aurangzeb personally managed campaigns in the Deccan against the Marathas who started guerrilla warfare. spies who provided vital information of political, military and social nature. Shahistakhan was beaten back with his fingers cut. [19] Then Aurangzeb sent Mirza Raje Jaisingh against Shivaji. [20] Jai Singh was a great soldier, he cast his net far and wide and invited the Siddis , Adilshah and the English to join him against Shivaji. The enemy’s superiority in arms and numbers had to blunted before converting the defensive tactics into offensive. Brief history. Slowly, Shivaji gained strength and emerged as one of the biggest foes of Aurangzeb. An agreement was signed between Shivaji and the sultan of Bijapur in 1662, by which Shivaji agreed not to attack Bijapur in exchange for control over northwestern part of the kingdom. He was a person of extraordinary integrity and devotion to his masters. The conquest of Javli kingdom in 1656 made Shivaji dominant in Mavala region, and the path was open for further conquests in the Konkan area. He tried to win over the Deshmukhs to his side, but to no avail. 50. Info: 2895 words (12 pages) Essay Surat was once again attacked. Shivaji practised more than three hundred years ago the tenets of guerrilla warfare which guerrilla leaders have theorised today. 49 (d) Impact and Result. Shivaji came back to Deccan and reconquered all the lost forts. The Marathas looked him as father of the nation and the rise of Maratha nationalism owes a great deal to Shivaji, who rose from a minor chieftain to king of an independent kingdom. Shivaji very early realised the importance of intelligence . Shahji became a living example to his son, Shivaji, teaching him how the weak could wear out the strong. He captured Javli in the Satara district and the immense booty that he won made him popular among the Marathas. 41. Shivaji Shivaji. By the end of 1657, Shivaji’s small Maratha kingdom was organised on solid foundations. Shivaji was especially harsh on his soldiers who didn’t respect women. Few of his Guerrilla tactics can be summarised as below:-. with them in 1657. The geographical features and locations are other factors responsible for the rise of Marathas, it has helped them to embrace guerrilla warfare. In the battle, Khan’s army lost over 3,000 men. His numerous forts were well managed. The Mughals followed the Mughal and Timurid custom of Loparcenary inheritance or a division of the inheritance amongst all the sons. Shivaji having worn body armour, was not affected. He was one of the few rulers who had a developed navy, and he enacted improvements to the organization and functioning of the army. Guerrilla Warfare. 33. TOS4. Whatever booty was obtained by the army during the campaigns had to be deposited in the treasury. Shivaji led the freedom struggle of the Marathas against Muslim rule in … 3.Shivaji's son Sambhaji was tasked with the command of a 5,000-strong force under the Mughals. 108. While he was away, he sent a message to Adil Shah to expel Shivaji. mughal emperor. He died on April 3, 1680, from high fever and was succeeded by his son, Raje Sambhaji (1657–89). Fortunately, Shah Jahan fell ill and Aurangzeb rushed back to Delhi to participate in the war for succession. Shahji became a living example to his son, Shivaji, teaching him how the weak could wear out the strong. ... Shivaji and the Mughals . 46. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on (d) Treat women folk with respect. While Jijabai moulded Shivaji to be a stern disciplinarian and far sighted, supervision of formal education was entrusted to Dadoji Kondev. [13]Â, 36. He won over the loyalty of his people by being one of them. Copyright © 2015 PublishYourArticles.Net, All rights reserved. Guerrilla warfare as conducted by Shivaji , Mao tse Tung and Che Guevara will be compared on basis of the following aspects:-(a) Ideology. After 1674, Shivaji launched a spate of offensives against Mughals in Berar and Khandesh. Company Registration No: 4964706. 37. (e) Religious tolerance. He treated the women folk of Surat [22] with respect , when he raided the city. Bijapur launched an attack under Sidi Salabat and took away Panhala. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Aurangzeb granted the jagir of Konkan to Shivaji. Shivaji was born in the fort of Shivneri near Pune in 1627 AD. [10] It was a tumultuous period of bitter contest between the Mughals and Shahji, who was being. 38. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Shivaji was a devout Hindu, but was far from fanaticism. The respite from the Mughals allowed the sultan to focus on Shivaji, so he sent General Afzal Khan with 10,000 troops to capture him. Following the tenets of guerrilla warfare, Shivaji did not relax and busied. He was highly tolerant and respectful of other religions. 44. - Publish Your Articles Now, Copyright infringement takedown notification template. They remained loyal to Shivaji. All work is written to order. His father, Shahji was the first Maratha chief to defy the Mughal authorities, dodging and deluding their renowned generals. Shivaji developed and devised a techinique of defence and offence through a hundreds of forts as a necessary adjunct of guerrilla methods adopted by him. The following year, Shivaji made a daring attack on Shaista Khan’s camp at Pune and the latter fled in disgrace. He was never actuated by a feeling of hatred towards the Muslims as a people or the religion itself. His waging of war against external domination was a yearning for freedom against subjugation. Mughals awarded the region won in this war to Shahaji Raje Bhosale. Maratha Empire MCQ Questions and answers with easy explanations. Sindhudurg, Vijaydurg, Kolaba and Suvarnadurg are some of his major sea forts. According to the treaty, Shivaji was to surrender 23 forts of the 35 held by him and his son Sambhaji was to proceed to Delhi as a courtier in Aurangazeb’s court. [21] Shivaji agreed and himself proceeded to Agra to meet the. Shivaji hastened back to Pratapgad and a cannon was fired to signal the infantry which was positioned at critical passes to cut off the fleeing Khan army . He started the Raj Shaka (royal era) and issued shivarai hun (gold coin) on this occasion. In 1648, Shahji was arrested on false charges of conspiring with the Sultan of Golkonda. The mughal emperor sent Shahitskhan to teach him a lesson. He provoked the court by failing to observe the court etiquette and made a slight salaam instead of bowing to the ground. [12] His father and mother, Jijabai advised him on matters of respect to elders and virtues of obedience and cooperation. Treaty of Purandar. By adopting this strategy of warfare, the Marathas were able to fight even against the mighty Mughal Empire. "Assertio (A) : Shivaji developed the guerilla warfare.Reason (R) : Shivaji feared the Mughals." He was strongly against forced conversion. 34. Shivaji maintined a high standard of discipline in his army. He pleaded with Aurangzeb, that he be allowed to retain his spoils of the Bijapur territory. At the siege of Panhala, Siddi Jauhar was lulled into inactivity by a promise of surrendering the fort. [24] Bahadur Khan was befooled by him as he was convinced of a submission of a petition seeking negotiations and pardon by the emperor. While seeing his own countryside, he came in contact with his countrymen and developed long lasting friendships. [14]Â. 45. Aurangzeb also had to face the rebellion in north India of the Sikhs, Jats and Satnamis, in the north-east of the Ahoms and in the Deccan of the Marathas. If only Shivaji had a Sun Tzu or a Kautilya in his court or a chronicler like Edgar Snow or Payne to leave behind an account of how he planned his tactics and strategy in the hours of crisis and the words of wisdom he uttered in his directives to his commanders, we would have amassed such a huge mass of literature on guerrilla warfare. Shahji’s letter to Shivaji advising him to give up Kondana, put Shivaji in a dilemma . Mir Jumla and Shahistakhan joined him on this adventure. Please click this link to view samples of our professional work witten by our professional essay writers. *You can also browse our support articles here >. 4.If Shivaji wanted to claim the Konkan area under Vijapur's control, he would have to pay 4 million (40 lakh) huns to the Mughals. Shivaji knew that his greatest strength was the people of his land. Due to the triple alliance, Shivaji had to enter into a treaty with Jai Singh i.e. Shivaji was a benevolent ruler, a liberal and a constructive administrator. 49 (d) Impact and Result. In Text Question Page No.50 Question 1. Jai Singh’s plan for subduing Bijapur failed, and he persuaded Shivaji to meet the emperor in person at Agra. Maharana Pratap used the guerilla warfare technique in the Battle of Haldighati. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Aurangzeb also faced the rebellion in north India of the Sikhs, Jats and Satnamis. Aurangzeb faced revolts from Sikhs, Jats and Satnamis in northern India, northeast of Ahom and also in the Deccan of the Marathas. (g) Strict discipline. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Shivaji tore open Khan’s bowels as he thrust his dagger deep inside him. [17]Â. Looking for a flexible role? At that time, Shahaji helped Mughals to defeat Adilshah in the year 1632. By then he had collected a thousand mawlas under him. Chapter Iv Shivaji The Great Guerrilla History Essay. It was besieged and Shivaji had to sign the Treaty of Purandar in 1665 after lengthy negotiations. [10]It was a tumultuous period of bitter contest between the Mughals and Shahji, who was being 17 … Guerrilla warfare as conducted by Shivaji , Mao tse Tung and Che Guevara will be compared on basis of the following aspects:- (a) Ideology. He besieged the forts at Vellore and Jinji.As a sovereign ruler, he signed a treaty with Golconda Sultanate. If out of nothing he could carve out an independent kingdom against formidable enemies, it was because of his single-minded honesty of purpose, dauntless courage, persistent pursuit of a high objective , military foresight and astute diplomacy . Salary was given in cash and the chiefs received land revenue grants. Immense booty fell in the hands of the Marathas – 4,000 horses,1,200 camels , 65 elephants and lots of cash and jewellery. Shivaji adopted a policy of religious toleration and employed Muslims in the army. Ramdas called him ‘Sarvadnya’ – lord of all sciences. He was kept under house arrest, from where he escaped. Shahji’s virtual house arrest in Karnataka put restrictions on Shivaji’s activities. The “Guerrilla” warfare technique (attacking without the enemy’s knowledge at lightning speed) helped him defend the Maratha Kingdom and bring down the Mughal Empire. 40. Shivaji had to arrest his wife’s brother for not participating in the freedom struggle on his side. (a) Use terrain to own advantage. pursued by his own father in law , Lukhoji Jadhav. Shivaji was a pragmatist, ethics of war had no place in his philosophy; he was fighting a war of liberation for his country and he was keen on securing his ends without bothering about morality of the means. From 1698 Aurangzeb personally managed campaigns in the Deccan against the Marathas who started guerrilla warfare. History. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Shivaji died in 1680, leaving behind a large kingdom. Shivaji also came into conflict with the Mughals when he made forays into Ahmadnagar, but he made peace Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanates. Ultimately, he had to personally manage campaigns in Deccan from 1698 on wards. He also had a substantial navy. He was a voracious reader and an ardent follower of Kautilya’s “Kut Niti”. He was put under house arrest but managed to escape. Privacy Policy3. is home of thousands of articles published by users like YOU. Shivaji Maharaj followed same technique of plunderers who would appear out of … Shivaji lured Afzal Khan into the interior of the hilly region and annihilated his forces. In his expansion, he soon captured Barmati, Indapur, Tikona, Lohgad, Rajmachi, Supa, Javli and Purandar. Study for free with our range of university lectures! Shivaji belonged to the Bhosle clan of Marathas which claimed descent from the Sisodia ranas of Udaipur [9]. 107. The Government of Maharashtra lists 19 February as a holiday commemorating Shivaji's birth (Shivaji Jayanti). His death was followed by a succession conflict amongst his sons. The numbers of his followers swelled in rank as days passed by. Aurangzeb was decimating Bijapur and was capturing territory after territory. In addition, some sea forts were constructed by Shivaji on inaccessible rocks near the sea coast as a counter to foreign maritime powers. Shivaji now eyed the fertile fields of Konkan. After being insulted by Aurangzeb Shivaji escaped from Agra and declared himself an independent king. Another treaty was signed, but it did not stop the offensive of Shivaji against the Mughals, and in 1670 he launched another attack against their territories. Afzal Khan fell into his trap and paid with his life. In the Konkan, he got into conflict with the Siddis, [16] English and the Portuguese over the control of the sea ports. These conquests were started by Shivaji in 1659 from the victory at the Battle of Pratapgad against Bijapur. Disclaimer Copyright. Shivaji was a master mind in bluffing his enemies. After 1674, Shivaji launched a spate of offensives against Mughals … Shivaji’s possessions in Pune and Chakan were utterly ruined. 107. But the greatest influence on Shivaji was of the unadorned nature and beauty of the mountains. He followed the principle of surprise to harass the enemy, when he was not prepared to meet him. Shivaji developed fort based and fort centric tactics. Must Read Rangoli Importance. Dadoji Kondev was the manager of Shahji’s Pune jagir. Image Source: Ideology. Peace lasted till 1670, after which Shivaji launched an all-out offense against the Mughals. He had a well oiled system of horsemen and runners to disseminate information at the earliest. He surveyed all inaccessible regions, studying routes of communication, bypaths and tracks and valleys. By Sep 1659, he marched against Shivaji with 10,000 cavalry and foot detachments of mountain guns and rockets carried on camel backs. 43. (j) Speed, Surprise and Audacity. We do not see many people who can be called rich. Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri, near the city of Junnar in what is now Pune district.Scholars disagree on his date of birth. Muslims were present in a large post in his army. Shivaji challenged the mughal authority by raiding Junnar and Ahmednagar and exacting taxes from them. Content Guidelines 2. In 1656, Shivaji re-started his military activities. Copyright © 2003 - 2021 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. An independent Maratha state became an accomplished fact in the face of the mighty Mughals and ever opposing hegemony of Bijapur kingdom. He also signed a friendship treaty with the Kutubshah of Golconda Sultanate. Answer:No, in spite of the annexation of Golconda and Bijapur, Aurangzeb faced uneding disturbance in Deccan as Marathas started guerrilla warfare against him. Economic Equality. Torna fell in Shivaji’s hands with persuasion and guile and without a drop of blood in 1646. The important Mughal port of Surat was attacked in 1664, and Shivaji returned with treasure worth a fortune. As a reward, the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan granted him the jagir that had been earlier allotted to Shahaji. 32. Ideology. Shivaji suspected treachery and was ready to meet the Khan. In accordance with Aurangzeb’s Deccan policy, he annexed Bijapur and Golconda. History section provides you all type of mcq questions on Maratha Empire with explanations. Prince Akbar rebelled against Aurangzeb and received support from the Marathas and the Deccan Sultanate. Shivaji led from the front and mastered the art of guerrilla warfare. War against the Mughals. Would this have meant more expenditure for the state? Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers. After a lifetime of guerrilla warfare with the Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur and Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, Shivaji formally established an independent Hindu Maratha kingdom when he crowned himself Chhatrapati in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. 42. As Shivaji bowed to Afzal Khan, he embraced Shivaji in a death grip. From 1698, Aurangzeb personally campaigned in the Deccan against the Marathas who started guerrilla warfare. Aurngazeb , happy that Shivaji was on his side, permitted that. This well executed operation was the final nail in the Bijapur coffin. [18]Â, 48. Test. She had great moral and spiritual influence on him. When in 1656, Mohd Adilshah of Bijapur died, Shivaji’s activities increased considerably. His aim was to capture as many forts possible, that too without a fight. The Mughals followed the Mughal and Timurid custom of Loparcenary inheritance or a division of the inheritance amongst all the sons. He learnt the importance of terrain in guerrilla war in his early years and never confronted the enemy in open combat. The departments of justice and charity were entrusted with nyayadhish and panditrao. The news of Shivaji’s prep for achieving swaraj reached the Bijapur court. Patronage of the mughal emperor paid good dividends. The ieshwa was the most important one, having charge of finance and general administration. "SWARAJYA"]) in free India. Till then he had avoided open conflict with the sultan, knowing fully well that he did not stand any chance in open combat. Shivaji retained 12 forts out of his 35 and agreed to remain loyal to Aurangzeb. But there were some basic precepts of human behaviour which did not flaunt even while dealing with the enemy. Disclaimer: This essay has been written and submitted by students and is not an example of our work. Thus a shattering blow was delivered on the sultan. [15]Â. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! A tax called chauth (one-fourth of land revenue) was levied in neighboring territories as a kind of protection money against Maratha raids. Shivaji was bold and fearless and led his men personally on distant and perilous campaigns. 108. If his father could defy the might of the mughals for years, why could not Shivaji continue and complete his work? The soldiers were given strict instructions for not harassing women and noncombatants. Shivaji was one of the few Indian rulers who tried to develop a navy. Aurangzeb also faced the rebellion in north India of the Sikhs, Jats and Satnamis. Question 2. Shivaji knew that with the Bijapur sultan gone, Aurangzeb would turn against him. In 1645, at the age of sixteen, Shivaji took an oath to free his countrymen and establishing Hindavi Swaraj. He also won over his opponents by his forthrightness and good conduct. The Bijapur sultan Adil Shah grew alarmed at Shivaji’s growing prowess. It is unfortunate that no Indian author ever developed the objective and analytical style of writing history. His waging of war against external domination was a yearning for freedom against subjugation. By 1659, he seized more forts along the Konkan coast and became master of Kalyan and Bhiwandi. The main forts are on the top of the Sahayadri range; then there are two main lines of them, one on the eastern and other on the western spurs of the mountain ranges. Annexation of these two states brought the Mughals into direct conflict with the Marathas. He had a full fledged department of. Then, he resumed his campaigns against the Mughals. ‘Ganim’ is an Arabic word meaning ‘plunderer’. The two leaders agreed to meet each other unarmed, but before Afzal could take out his dagger, Shivaji finished him with a hidden iron finger grip containing tiger claws. Till 1648, Shivaji captured numerous forts of strategic importance ie Kondana (later Sinhgarh), Raigad, Vishalgad, Purandar etc. The Chinese general and strategist Sun Tzu, in his The Art of War (6th century BC) or 600 BC to 501 BC, was the earliest to propose the use of guerrilla warfare. In 1642, he brought Jijabai and Shivaji from Karnataka to Pune and built Lal mahal for them to reside. He was paraded as a mere criminal in the streets of Bijapur. She inculcated a spirit of bravery and self-determination in him. At the time of the struggle for freedom against British colonial rule, he was taken as a symbol of nationalism in the nationalist historiography. This caused a major embarrassment to Aurangzeb. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Chhatrapati Sambhaji was faced with a huge Mughal Army and he fought at least … Shivaji captured Junnar in Mughal territory and marched against Ahmednagar and gained a lot in terms of horses and money. The recruitment ground of his mawla troops increased rapidly. He finally defeated the Siddis and forged a treaty with the English and the Portuguese. The following year two more forts, Kondana and Raigarh, were taken by his army. overlordship and demanded that Kokan be given to him as a jagir. From 1698 Aurangzeb personally managed campaigns in the Deccan against the Marathas who started guerrilla warfare. Nobody could know where he would be the next day. Shivaji maintained cordial relations with the Mughals till 1657. He appreciated that this terrain was best to oust the foreigners. Shivaji also began raiding trading establishmen… He had 10,000 mawal infantry and 10,000 horsed cavalry. In 1656 , Adilshah died and there was a nineteen year old boy on the throne. The Mughals had ambushed Shivaji when he was returning from a sack on Jalna. Published Date: 23 Mar 2015. (f) Fort based tactics. Shivaji. This battle was a great example of guerrilla warfare. When Aurangzeb insulted Shivaji, when latter came to accept Mughal authority, Shivaji escaped from prison and began great guerrilla warfare in Deccan against Mughals. The ashtapradhans (eight ministers) were ministers holding different portfolios. His father, Shahji was the first Maratha chief to defy the Mughal authorities, dodging and deluding their renowned generals. Sambhaji’s younger brother, Raja Ram carried on the struggle against the Mughals. (c) Intelligence is the essence of all operations. This directly inspired the development of modern guerrilla warfare. 39. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Afterward, the Bijapur army was routed, and Sivaji’s exploits made him a legendary figure. He finally fled to Safavid Iran. Shivaji’s, meagre force of 5000 completely routed Fateh Khan’s forces by raiding parties organised by Shivaji and his mawalas. He was always on the move, avoiding engagement with the better equipped and numerically superior enemy. Aurangzeb wanted to subdue Shivaji and sent his capable Hindu general Mirza Raja Jai Singh with an army of 12,000. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Pune and north Konkan came under Shaista Khan. Fought with Mughals. Shivaji. Maratha Empire MCQ is important for exams like IBPS, SCC, UPSC, NET etc. There are three lines of distinct forts in Maharashtra which can be recognised even in present day. Guerrilla tactics were presumably employed by prehistoric tribal warriors against … This was the last battle in which the Maratha King Shivaji fought. 35. ... His army was the first in which guerrilla warfare was used fiercely. himself in continuous activity. He was a brave soldier who prized his independence. The army used unusual and out of the box ways to fight the enemy treacherous terrain.

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