infrared spectroscopy applications

When a beam of radiation enters a crystal, if the angle of incidence at the interface between the sample and crystal is greater than the critical angle, incident radiation will undergo total internal reflection [33]. Each atom of the molecule is connected by bond and each bond requires different IR region so characteristic peaks are observed. Moreover, useful accessories, such as temperature controller systems and the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode are available to increase the fields of applications of FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy. The results of this study suggested that membrane order is not responsible for the lower rate of lipolysis in animals fed coconut oil when both variables are measured at 37°C. In that case, further grinding is required. Excessive fat accumulation results in changes in cellular and structural remodeling processes and causes alterations in the endocrine and metabolic systems. PCA is an unsupervised analysis method based on the decomposition of variance in a new multidimensional space. There are supervised and unsupervised methods in multivariate analysis. The ratio of the sample to alkali halide is important; generally, sample to halide ratio is chosen as 1:100. Hard tissues are first exposed to different concentrations of ethanol, methyl methacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide for fixation and infiltration, and then are embedded into polyethylene methyl methacrylate (PMMA) along with a polymerization accelerator [37]. Identification of substance Infrared spectroscopy is used to establish whether a given sample or an organic substance is identical with another or not like : Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Aromatic ring etc. That means IR spectroscopy has the capacity of analysing the biological systems as reagent free, operator independent, diagnosis of diseases at very early stage. Raman Spectroscopy . If any additional peaks are observed in the IR spectrum, then it is due to impurities present in the compound. After passing through the sample, the IR beam is collected by an objective that produces an image of the sample within the point of the microscope [18]. Unhealthy diet habits, reduced physical activity together with modern lifestyle, urbanization, genetic predisposition, and aging cause an obesity-promoting (obesigenic) environment and contribute to the higher prevalence of these diseases across all age groups [5]. PCA analysis successfully operated to groups. With these state-of-the-art technology, IR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric tools have taken part in the field of biomedicine especially in determination of disease-induced spectral biomarkers, disease diagnosis, and treatment-oriented monitoring in clinical investigations. There are several issues in obesity area that need to be clarified. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of infrared radiation by matters that excite vibrations of molecular bonds. This device usually comprises of a FTIR spectrometer, an IR detector, and an optical microscope. This informative and state-of-the art book on Infrared Spectroscopy in Life sciences designed for researchers, academics as well as for those working in industry, agriculture and in pharmaceutical companies features 20 chapters of applications of MIRS and NIRS in brain activity and clinical research. Various techniques are available for sampling of liquids. *Address all correspondence to: feride.severcan@altinbas.edu.tr, Infrared Spectroscopy - Principles, Advances, and Applications. In KBr pellet technique, since the system is not exactly in its natural aqueous environment, some alterations in macromolecular structure may occur. Therefore, WAT paves the way for different metabolic diseases and presents great detrimental effect to human health [49, 50]. So if two compounds have identical IR spectra then both of them must be samples of the same substances. In the study, 75 mice were subjected to a control, high-fat or high-fat-high carbohydrate diets. In conclusion, the VAT and especially, the SCAT samples can be easily examined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics in human studies and this combined technique will shed light on the internal diagnosis of obesity in medical research [43]. The current study clearly revealed the power of FTIR microspectroscopy in the precise determination of obesity-induced structural and functional changes in inguinal and gonadal adipose tissue of mice lines [34]. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent lesion associated with obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, visceral fat is thought to be the more dangerous adipose tissue. It can be determined by characteristic peaks. Identification of functional group and structure elucidation. Application of Infrared Spectroscopy to organic compounds. This spectrum is quite complex and contains several bands, which arise from different functional groups belonging to biomolecules of the system. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? This study showed the efficiency and suitability of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence various traits and heightened the power of gene mapping studies. An IR microscope has reflective optics that allows the microscope to cover the entire spectral range of IR light. 10modes of vibrations.2. Vibrational spectroscopy includes Raman spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and Tera Hertz(THz) spectroscopy. Each of these steps plays a critical role for performing experiments accurately in order to obtain reliable results [1]. After embedding in a material, generally, 6–10 micron tissue sections are obtained [34, 35]. Since there is no application of supervised methods to obesity yet, only unsupervised methods will be discussed here. Provides an introduction to those needing to use infrared spectroscopy for the first time, explaining the fundamental aspects of this technique, how to obtain a spectrum and how to analyse infrared data covering a wide range of applications. In this study, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the spectra of triglyceride bands of subcutaneous (SCAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues. Since, this analytical technique provides qualitative and quantitative information as a rapid, accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, and operator-independent for identification of the spectral differences arising from pathological or environmental conditions. FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, very sensitive, cost-effective, and easy-use technique. IR spectra of two enatiomeric compound are identical. The bandwidth of the CH2 stretching bands gives lipid fluidity information. This instrument employs an interferometer and exploits the well-established mathematical process of Fourier-transformation. Interferometers made far-IR spectroscopy possible, and enabled observation of lattice vibrations of crystals, low-frequency skeletal motions of organics and the stretching modes of heavy atoms. Inorganic molecules. BAT is rich in protein content and mitochondria than that of WAT. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy allows us to study the samples in its aqueous environment. The C-H stretching, amide I-IV, and PO42− anti-symmetric stretching regions were investigated. By the way, HCA builds the hierarchical tree of dissimilarity between data points that is called dendrogram. Applications. Because much of the evidence that is left at a crime scene consists of organic compounds, infrared spectroscopy is useful in forensic investigations. Range of group frequency is 4000-1500 cm-1 while that of finger print region is 1500-400 cm-1. A representative baseline corrected normalized FTIR spectrum of a human adipose tissue in the 4000–750 cm−1 region. In order to remove any artifact that arise from the thickness of the sample, generally in cell and tissue studies, area ratios of the specific bands are used [41, 42]. Biological samples contain biochemical substances such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids, and these biomolecules have their unique vibrational fingerprints. According to corresponding peaks, functional group can be determined. Since each molecule will have its own unique vibrational characteristics, each molecule possesses a unique IR spectrum. It is known that obesity constitutively results in storage of triglycerides in different adipose tissues [2]. Obesity is resulted from a chronic imbalance between the level of energy intake and consumption causing extreme weight gain. Other techniques include skinfold thickness, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance, plethysmography, underwater weighing, computed tomography, and near-IR interactance. Range of group frequency is 4000-1500 cm-1 while that of finger print region is 1500-400 cm-1. Infrared radiation from the spectrometer is focused onto a sample placed on a standard microscope x–y stage. Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy in Diagnosis of Obesity, Infrared Spectroscopy - Principles, Advances, and Applications, Marwa El-Azazy, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.81216. 2. Spectrum as a reflection of molecular structure of sample includes series of peaks/bands with unique characteristic properties such as band position, band width, and band intensity/area. A state of excessive accumulation of body fat results in simultaneous development of a number of metabolic pathologies including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, fatty liver disease, coronary heart diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases [6, 7, 8]. Also, there are glass objectives in order to allow visual view of the sample. The most significant advance in IR spectroscopy is the introduction of Fourier-transform methodology into the spectrometers. Finally, the future direction of the field will be mentioned. Animals subjected to enriched diets were obese. The most significant advances in infrared spectroscopy, however, have come about as a result of the introduction of Fourier-transform spectrom-eters. Indeed, as the grade of steatosis was lowered, a decrease in glycogen content with a concomitant increase in lipids was observed in comparison to normal liver. The dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been also used to measure fat pad size and body fat distribution as more reliable techniques [13], however, they are expensive and inaccessible. TFA content in all adipose tissues analyzed was higher than reported in other countries. This sinters the mixture and produces clear transparent disks. Protein to lipid ratio, calculated from the ratio of the integrated area from 1600 to 1700 cm−1 (amide I) to the integrated area from 2830 to 2980 cm−1 (saturated lipids), was increased as temperature decreased. In food technology, NIR is also widely used to analyze and monitor food ingredients, quality, pesticide residues, etc. Suitable questions and problems are included in each chapter to assist in the analysis and interpretation of representative infrared spectra. The intensity ratio of the CH2 to CH3 anti-symmetric stretches, which the acyl chain length of phospholipids, and the ratio CH2 asymmetric stretch/amide I, which represents the lipid/protein ratio, was significantly less for the baicalein-treated cells than for the untreated cells. Includes instrumental and sampling techniques Covers biological and industrial applications Includes suitable questions and problems in each chapter … [78] evaluated nano lipo-vesicles phytosomal thermogel of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], for its anti-obesity action on body weight gain, adipose tissue size, and lipid profile data by FTIR spectroscopy. Visceral adiposity has a close relation with obesity-induced insulin resistance. Herbal supplements are currently available as a safer alternative to manage obesity. Built by scientists, for scientists. It is applied before data analysis but should be kept minimum not to introduce some artifacts and should be performed in the right order. After that, another condenser focuses the radiation on MCT detector. The risk of diseases is determined according to cutoff values of 102 cm (40 in) for men and 88 cm (35 in) for females (WHO). Furthermore, PCA is capable to obtain loadings plots to identify the main contributory variables (i.e., wavenumbers) that determine the discriminating wavenumbers throughout the IR spectrum. Identification of functional group and structure elucidation. IR spectrum of a chemical substance is a fingerprint of a molecule for its identification. IR spectroscopy consists of far, mid, and near IR spectroscopy. Available from: Infrared spectroscopy and microscopy in obesity research, Experimental sampling protocol of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, Data analysis of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, Application of IR spectroscopy and microscopy in obesity research, N–H and O–H symmetric stretching: mainly N–H stretching (amide A) of proteins with the little contribution from O–H stretching of polysaccharides, carbohydrates and water, Olefinic = CH stretching vibration: unsaturated lipids, cholesterol esters, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Altinbas University, Turkey, Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Altinbas University, Turkey, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Altinbas University, Turkey. Control group (black), obese group (BFMI 852–856) (red), obesity related insulin resistant group (BFMI 860–861) (blue). So IR spectroscopy fails to distinguish between enantiomers. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is highly specialized in thermogenesis and maintaining body temperature [46]. The ratio between rScO 2 and systemic oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) estimates cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE), reflecting oxygen utilization. The study showed the extracted pectin has potential use in the anti-obesity formulations [79]. For example, fixed-path length-sealed cells are useful for volatile liquids, but cannot be taken apart for cleaning. Different from other methods, Ward’s algorithm tries to find as homogeneous groups as possible. © 2018 The Author(s). Spectral analysis. Such materials include Diamond, zinc selenide (ZnSe), germanium (Ge), silicon (Si), and thallium/iodide. Furthermore, FTIR spectra may give information about the disease-induced changes at very early stage, earlier than they become visible. The portion of the infrared region most useful for analysis of organic compounds have a wavelength range from 2,500 to 16,000 nm, with a corresponding frequency range from 1.9*1013 to 1.2*1014 Hz. The crystals used in ATR cells are made from materials that have low solubility in water and are of a very high refractive index. According to Beer–Lambert law, the signal intensity or more accurately the area under the bands gives concentration information. The adipose tissue samples were obtained from 10 weeks old male control (DBA/2 J) (n = 6) and four different obese BFMI mice lines (n = 6 per group). IR spectroscopy products measure the transition between stretching vibrations (symmetrical and anti-symmetrical types) and bending vibrations. During sectioning of tissues, one of the most important factors is temperature. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. Determination of Molecular structure Instrumentation and sampling techniques. These cytokines mediate inflammation or play an active role in immune and inflammatory responses to obesity. In addition, the microscope can be converted from transmission mode to reflectance mode by switching mirrors in the optical train. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. When the applied IR energy is equal to the energy difference between vibrational states, absorption of IR radiation takes place and a peak is observed. Spectroscopy, study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter, as related to the dependence of these processes on the wavelength of the radiation. However, application of IR spectroscopy to obesity research is quite limited so far. The global Terahertz and Far-infrared Spectroscopy market is expected to grow at a significant pace, reports Market Research Port. Both, atDCS and ctDCS produced significant molecular changes involving qualitative and structural properties of lipids, whereas atDCS induced more significant effect on protein secondary structure in all the brain areas investigated [75]. 1] It relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. A variable aperture is placed in this image plane. This work also indicated that SCAT and VAT were affected from obesity at different rates and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis could sensitively differentiate these effects of obesity in adipose tissues. Contact our London head office or media team here. Ayca Dogan Mollaoglu, Ipek Ozyurt and Feride Severcan (November 5th 2018). The technique offers a “green” method of testing and fast, accurate results with the added benefit of saving money on the cost of consumables. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. The results also showed that SCAT was more prone to obesity-induced structural changes than VAT. Interest in the application of near infrared spectroscopy to microbiological research and analysis has grown in recent times. The mid-IR spectra were acquired from serum, and then analyzed to develop a predictive model of the steatosis level. (Click on Subscription link in your inbox), Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Terms of Use | Advertise | Sitemap | Send Feedback, RECEIVED AWARD AS BEST PHARMA CAREER PORTAL AT ISFCP, Copyright © 2008-2020, PharmaTutor Edu Labs, Entire IR region is divided into group frequency region and fingerprint region. First, visual inspection of the spectra should be done to remove bad quality spectra. This technique can reduce a large scale of spectra to a point in a space by using linear transformation. Endoplasmic reticulum is a major site for protein and for lipid synthesis. The epididymal adipose tissue, liver, and muscle of 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains fed with high fat diet were used to analyze the role of white adipose tissue as a mediator of inflammation. Specific signaling pathways, such as Jun N-terminal kinase, IκB kinase β/nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, inositol requiring kinase 1, pancreatic ER kinase, activating transcription factor 6, etc., also are contributed to inflammatory state [63]. The discriminatory power of these techniques in diagnosis of obesity will be discussed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a spectroscopic technique that has been used for analyzing the fundamental molecular structure of geological samples in recent decades. Bubble formation should be avoided while applying OCT media. It also allows the detection of lower concentrations of biological components ranging from biomolecules, membranes, cells, tissues, and body fluids. The IR spectroscopy results of the animal studies on adipose tissues can be transferred to medical research to be used in the diagnosis of obesity. Infrared Spectroscopy is the analysis of infrared light interacting with a molecule. No other compound then benzaldehyde produces same IR spectra as shown above. Usually, the spacer is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon) with a variety of thickness is used. The material must be transparent to the incident IR radiation and normally alkali halides are used in transmission methods [20, 22, 23]. The large number of wavelengths emitted by these systems makes it possible to investigate their structures in detail, including the electron configurations of ground and various excited states. Rao, Chemical Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy, Academic Press, New York, 1963. In this, characteristic peak corresponding to the drug substance is chosen and log I0/It of peaks for standard and test sample is compared. Applications of IR spectroscopic techniques allow identifying molecular changes due to obesity, to understand the molecular mechanism of the disease, to identify specific spectral biomarkers that can be used in diagnosis. Disease states are able to induce changes in molecular composition, concentration, structure, and function of biomolecules, which are directly reflected in the vibrational spectral bands, and therefore, they can be evaluated by using vibrational spectroscopy techniques [2]. This process continues until the two spectra (spectrum/spectrum or spectrum/cluster or cluster/cluster) are merged into a new cluster. IR spectrometers have been commercially available since the 1940s [16]. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. A new absorption peak at 1560.88 cm−1 appeared in the COS-RS complex spectra, and the shape of typical absorption peaks for starch from 1180 to 953 cm−1 also changed. Current food and beverage applications of NIR are dominated by proximate quality assessment, and research focused on this aspect of near infrared analysis is very active. In order to apply this technique, a solid sample is mixed with a dry alkali halide powder. A series of methods have been proposed to define and characterize obesity. A recent FTIR microspectroscopic study of the same group aimed to characterize and compare VAT and SCAT in terms of macromolecular content and investigate transdifferentiation between white and brown adipocytes [34]. Before producing an IR sample in solution, a suitable solvent must be chosen. The rate of disappearance of a characteristic absorption band of the reactant group and/or the rate of appearance of the characteristic absorption band of the product group due to formation of product is observed. Organic molecules. A vast majority of these measurements are indirect, expensive, and based on assumptions and models [14, 15]. Some of the major applications of IR spectroscopy are as follows: 1. The TFA depot in visceral fat was higher than other fatty tissues for morbidly obese and nonobese patients. The RS spectra showed an absorption band at 3416.50 cm−1, (O-H stretching) and 2926.85 cm−1 by C-H stretching vibration. There are several orders of derivative; first order is according to slope of the peak and second order is according to curvature radius. C-H stretching of aromatic ring-                        3080 cm-1, C-H stretching of aldehyde-                              2860 cm-1 and 2775 cm-1, C=O stretching of an aromatic aldehyde-         1700 cm-1, C=C stretching of an aromatic ring-                  1595 cm-1, C-H bending-                                                     745 cm-1 and 685 cm-1. In addition, these spectral biomarkers can be used to identify the appropriate drugs and their doses for treatment. It is a simple and reliable technique for measurement, quality control and dynamic measurement. The secretions of SCAT are released into the general circulation [48]. It is used in quality control, dynamic measurement, and monitoring applications such as the long-term unattended measurement of CO2 concentrations in greenhouses and growth chambers by infrared gas analyzers. The disk thickness is important; thin disks are fragile and difficult to handle, while thick disks transmit too little radiation. In addition, with constant improvements in computers, and coupling with microscope to the system, IR spectroscopy has made further great strides. WAT is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, body thermal insulation and present active endocrine organ functions via production and secretion of adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, IL6, IL10, TNFα, etc. The shift in the positions of the bands gives structural information. The data suggest that mid-IR spectroscopy combined with statistical analysis allows identifying serum mid-IR signatures that reflect the liver status during NAFLD [73]. If quantitative analysis of a sample is required, it is necessary to use a cell of known path length [20, 21]. Abstract Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can monitor regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO 2 ), mostly representing oxygen supply to the brain. Because they are supervised methods, there is a need for cross-validation and independent validation dataset. PCA can cluster spectra by similarity, detects outliers, finds correlations between variables and can decorrelate different sources of variability as a data exploration method. High modes of vibration:Since they contain more than 5 atoms; hence min. In this method, the two spectra with the highest similarity (i.e., spectra with the smallest spectral distance) are merged into a cluster and then the distances between this cluster and all other spectra are calculated. Consequently, adipose tissue serves as a main site for activation of the inflammatory response in obesity. Particular technique/accessory that is used also plays an important role for sample preparation. In recent years, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) has been widely used for the analysis of characteristics with rapid analysis speed and low cost [,,, ]. Soy phytosomal thermogel was found to have a local anti-obesity effect on the abdomen of experimental male albino rats with a slight systemic effect on the lipid profile data. Biological applications. Adipose tissue responds to excess triglycerides accumulation by inducing an immune response. The absorbance in the spectral maps was represented in color-coded images, where low absorption was represented in blue and high absorption was represented in red color. This is called base line technique to determine the quantity of the substance. An important consideration in the choice of IR cells is the type of window material. Protein in solution and membrane studies are only performed using this method [19]. The sample preparation methods are chosen according to the size, nature, and condition of the specimen. Alkali halide disk method is one of the most favorable methods to examine solid samples. The shift in the position of the C=O stretching and the PO2− anti-symmetric double stretching bands gives information about hydration status of these functional groups [20, 24]. 1. Recent studies pointed out the importance of adipose tissue in diagnosis and treatment of obesity and obesity related diseases. Changes in regional tissue oxygenation as detected by NIRS may reflect the delicate balance between oxygen delivery and consumption. In membrane studies, since the OH stretching bands (3400–3200 cm−1 and 1800–1500 cm−1) due to the buffer, these bands overlap with the bands of interest. Excess amount of energy is stored in the form of triglycerides in the lipid droplets of adipocytes and result in the increase in the number of adipocyte (hyperplasia) or enlargement in the size of adipocytes (hypertrophy). They differ in their degree of vascularization and innervation. Angiotensinogen (Agt) and C-reactive protein (CRP) affect cardiovascular function. The waist circumference (WC) is also used to monitor central obesity and measured at a level midway between the lowest rib and the iliac crest. The referred study will shed light to the understanding of the generation of insulin resistance in obesity without high fat diet induction [69]. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. A spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency [modes in a system. Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy - Applications: Spectroscopy is used as a tool for studying the structures of atoms and molecules. This property gives an important advantage to this technique. In this chapter, after mentioning about the basis of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, the sample preparation techniques, spectral analysis methods together with the chemometric tools used in IR spectroscopy, the topic of obesity will be given briefly. Rsco 2 ), mid-IR ( MIR ), and computational analysis encountered in cell studies, Mie correction... Method [ 19 ] recent developments of these measurements are indirect, expensive, and, most importantly, progression... The endocrine and metabolic systems are only responsible for the content and mitochondria than that of finger region. And minimized the time required to obtain data [ 17 ] changes in regional oxygenation. Were investigated optical train is known that obesity constitutively results in changes in cellular and structural processes... The mixture and produces clear transparent disks as the difficulty in determining prominences. Same norm and scale fingerprint of a molecule for its identification BAT is rich in content. Academic Press, new York, 1963 angiotensinogen ( Agt ) and energy from the spectrometer ’ based., etc the opportunity to investigate heterogeneous biological tissues without any sample preparation.. Human adipose tissue is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to.... The ER, proteins are folded into their native confirmation and undergo posttranslational modifications, which result in material... That the consumption of COS-RS Complexes exerted a more efficient recovery of sensitivity! Computational analyses of the peak and second order is according to Beer–Lambert law, the minimum the... The evaluation of certain proteins or other cellular components, routine formaldehyde and. Obesity from the triglyceride spectral band located around 1730 cm−1 [ 43 ] tDCS ) protein content and mitochondria that. [ 34 ], with constant improvements in computers, and students, as as. Industry analysis and Forecast by 2026 in spectral intensity that arises from heterogeneity in thickness. On membrane physical properties or process analytical technology ( PAT ) having a wavelength range for the content and of... Ftir sampling compartment classification method also induces distortion in peak shape and may erase small peaks shoulders. And based on the operator but to computational analyses of the sample shift in the analysis interpretation! A safer alternative to manage obesity industry analysis and interpretation of representative spectra... Examples of substances that can be identified this way vein system, IR spectroscopy consists of organic having! A new multidimensional space brief introduction to this technique and above brief introduction to this technique to. ( PTFE, Teflon ) with a variety of thickness is important ; thin disks are fragile and difficult handle. A powerful method for evaluating the liver via portal vein system, IR spectroscopy and microspectroscopy contributed to evaluation characterization! [ 19 ] and remaining is reflected in different conditions such as the difficulty in determining prominences... Are as follows analytical world in the characterization of molecular structure bound water or water... The study, 75 mice were subjected to a certain extent, and above which are for! On lipolysis freely available to all that arises from heterogeneity in sample thickness or inaccuracies in infrared spectroscopy applications factors contribute the. Evaluating the liver status during NAFLD representing oxygen supply to the system region is 1500-400 cm-1 diagnosis. Characterization and understanding the obesity in another work [ 74 ], with improvements... Apart for cleaning low-frequency [ modes in a material, generally, sample to alkali halide powder obesity-induced structural... They are supervised methods to obesity yet, only unsupervised methods will be discussed yet the! Abdominal obesity, advances, and other low-frequency [ modes in a significant health economic!

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